Linking running energetics and performance with a focus on the 2-hour marathon barrier

Step 1: Linking changes in running economy to changes in running performance:

Hoogkamer W, Kipp S, Spiering BA, Kram R. Altered running economy directly translates to altered distance-running performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 48: 2175-2180, 2016.

Step 2: Review the literature and quantify how biomechanical improvements in running economy affect elite marathon running performance:

Hoogkamer W, Kram R, Arellano C. How biomechanical improvements in running economy can break the 2-hour marathon barrier. Sports Med, 47: 1739-1750, 2017.

Hoogkamer W, Kram R, Arellano C. Author’s reply to Candau et al.: Comment on: “How biomechanical improvements in running economy could break the 2-hour marathon barrier”. Sports Med, 47: 2405-2407, 2017.

Step 3: Test how much new prototype marathon shoes (Vaporfly series) affect running economy:

Hoogkamer W, Kipp S, Frank JH, Farina EM, Luo G, Kram R. A comparison of the energetic cost of running in marathon racing shoes. Sports Med, 48: 1009-1019, 2018.

Step 4: Further optimize drafting strategies:

Hoogkamer W, Snyder KL, Arellano C. Modeling the benefits of cooperative drafting: Is there an optimal strategy to facilitate a sub-2-hour marathon performance? Sports Med, 48: 2859-2867, 2018.

Hoogkamer W, Snyder KL, Arellano C. Reflecting on Eliud Kipchoge’s marathon world record: An update to our model of cooperative drafting and its potential for a sub-2-hour performance. Sports Med, 49: 167-170, 2019.

Step 5: Revisit the link between changes in running economy and changes in running performance:

Kipp S, Kram R, Hoogkamer W. Extrapolating metabolic savings in running: implications for performance predictions. Front Physiol, 10: 79, 2019.

Step 6: Discuss the physiology of elite marathon runners:

Layec G, Hoogkamer W. Commentaries on Viewpoint: Physiology and fast marathons – Running economy under the microscope. J Appl Physiol, 128, 1084, 2020.

Step 7: Evaluate the effects of course design on marathon running performance:

Snyder KL, Hoogkamer W, Triska C, Taboga P, Arellano CJ, Kram R. Effects of course design (curves and elevation undulations) on marathon running performance: a comparison of Breaking 2 in Monza and the INEOS 1:59 Challenge in Vienna. J Sports Sci, 39, 754-759, 2020.

Step 8: Revisit the effects of air resistance on running economy:

da Silva ES, Kram R, Hoogkamer W. The metabolic cost of emulated aerodynamic drag forces in marathon running. J Appl Physiol, 133, 766-776, 2022.

Linking running biomechanics and energetics

Uphill running:

Hoogkamer W, Taboga P, Kram R. Applying the cost of generating force hypothesis to uphill running. PeerJ 2: e482, 2014.

Fatigue novice runners:

Maas E, de Bie J, Vanfleteren E, Hoogkamer W, Vanwanseele B. Novice runners show greater changes in kinematics with fatigue compared with competitive runners. Sports Biomech, 17: 350-360, 2018.

Calf muscle mechanics and energetics - Foot strike pattern:

Swinnen W, Hoogkamer W, Delabastita T, Aeles J, De Groote F, Vanwanseele B. The effect of habitual foot strike pattern on the Gastrocnemius medialis muscle-tendon interaction and muscle force production during running. J Appl Physiol, 126: 708-716, 2019.

Swinnen W, Hoogkamer W, De Groote F, Vanwanseele B. Habitual foot strike pattern does not affect simulated Triceps Surae muscle metabolic energy consumption during running. J Exp Biol, 222: jeb212449, 2019.

Calf muscle mechanics and energetics - Step frequency:

Swinnen W, Mylle I, Hoogkamer W, De Groote F, Vanwanseele B. Changing stride frequency alters average joint power and power distributions during ground contact and leg swing in running. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 53, 2111-2118, 2021.

Swinnen W, Mylle I, Hoogkamer W, De Groote F, Vanwanseele B. Triceps surae muscle force potential and force demand shift with altering stride frequency in running. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 32, 1444-1455, 2022.

Swinnen W, Hoogkamer W, De Groote F, Vanwanseele B. Faster triceps surae muscle cyclic contractions alter muscle activity and whole-body metabolic rate. J Appl Physiol, accepted.